The core of the grass is constantly changing, such as t […]
The core of the grass is constantly changing, such as the bright light of the beans. Fire makes human civilization progress. Since the discovery of fire, humans have bid farewell to the life of Ru Mao and blood, and have since found a warm and stable source of light. The concept of lighting has gradually become a symbol of human civilization.
If the fire is the origin, then the ancient lamps that were born with the fire are the guardians of this civilization. For thousands of years, it has been created in countless forms, playing an indispensable practical role in people's lives.
On September 8th, the “Flower and Light Shadow – Jinshan Museum Ancient Lamps Exhibition” jointly sponsored by Jiaxing Museum and Shanghai Jinshan Museum was unveiled at the Heyuan Exhibition Hall of Jiaxing Museum, with “The Origin of Ancient Chinese Lamps”, “Han Dynasty Lamps”, “Three Kingdoms and Two Jins” Six parts, including the lamps of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the Song and Yuan Dynasties of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and the Modern and Contemporary Lamps, exhibited a total of 142 ancient lamps from the Han Dynasty to the Republic of China, with a history of nearly 2,000 years.
What is the prototype of ancient lamps? What kind of historical candle holders changes has it experienced? Recently, the reporter walked into the Jiaxing Museum to explore the secrets of the ancient lamp culture that lasted for a thousand years.
The originator of the lamp is actually it
We often say that a light is like a bean. The "bean" here refers not to beans, but to a food utensil in ancient times. "Erya releaser" wrote, "The pigeonpea is called the bean, the bamboo bean is called the cockroach, and the pea is called the buddy." "Said Wen Jie Zi" also said, "The lamp is also a bean." "Deng", "镫", "lights", changes in the text, can be seen, the relationship between lights and beans.
So, what is the bean in the end? "Like a kind of high-footed dish, the ancients would use it to pile up food. There will be a small protrusion in the center of the plate, that is the prototype of the wick." Liu Yan, director of the Jinshan Museum's exhibition department, told reporters that "beans" gradually evolved into The lamp basically retains the prototype of the "bean", and also has a high foot and a disc, which is used to enlarge the light source area and hold the fuel.
According to the literature and archaeological excavation data, the bean-shaped lamps appearing during the Warring States period should be the earliest stereotyped lamps in China. At present, the number of lamps in the Warring States is very small. The main types are bean-shaped lamps, scorpion lamps, human-shaped lamps, multi-branched lamps, etc., which are the source of the history of Chinese lamps.
For example, the Hooked Jade Bean-shaped Lamp, which is now in the Palace Museum of Beijing, is a representative product that was unearthed in the lamps of the Warring States Period. The whole lamp body consists of a base, a handle and a disk. The lamp is round and the disk is convex. From the five-petal flower-shaped lamp stand, the whole body is carved with three jade pieces and then combined to form a device, which is very beautiful.
Liu Yan said that in fact, the lamps that use fire as a light source, like the Chinese nation, have a long history and a long history. In the inheritance of more than two thousand years, the craftsmanship, practical functions and cultural implication of lamps have been constantly evolving with the progress of human society. But the only constant is that it always illuminates the historical process of the development of human society. It can be said that the history of a Chinese lamp is a history of the development of Chinese civilization.
Ancient lamps "face value" and strength
Walking through the exhibition hall, it is not difficult to find that the ancient lamps and lanterns are exquisitely crafted, and the number of the past dynasties is numerous, compared with modern lamps, there is more than nothing. “It can be said that ‘Yan value’ has both strength and strength.” Liu Yan said that, like the political, economic and cultural development of the Han Dynasty, it was in the rising period of China’s feudal society. At this time, the variety of lamps, the large number, the quality of the exquisite, the popularity of the use, far beyond the Qin Dynasty of the Warring States, is the prosperity of ancient lamps.
Different from the Warring States period, the material of the lamps is no longer limited to pottery. The Han Dynasty lamps are mainly made of bronze, and iron, pottery, porcelain, jade and stone. According to its shape, it can be divided into four categories: ware-type lamps, animal lamps, character lamps, and ligature lamps. For example, the famous Western Han Dynasty Changxin Palace lanterns were unearthed in the tomb of Dou Yu, the wife of Liu Jing, the son of Jing Wang in Mancheng County, Hebei Province in 1968, and now the Museum of Hebei Province.
The Changxin Palace lamp body is a palace lady with a full body of gold and two hands holding a lamp. It is quiet and elegant. The design of the Gongguang Changxin Palace lanterns is very clever. The palace ladies hold the lights in one hand and the other hand sleeves seem to be in the wind. After more than two thousand years, they are not lost. There are several pieces in this exhibition, such as exquisite exhibits.
In the exhibition hall, a strange ancient lamp attracted the attention of the reporter. I saw it with a rounded belly, and raised a small arm high, and extended an oval disc into the air. In order to maintain stability, the two sides of the stomach had their feet and they looked very "at first glance." cute". "This is a boat-shaped copper lamp unearthed in the Han Dynasty. Don't look at it in the thousand years old. The organs inside can not be stuck at all." During the speech, Liu Yan demonstrated for the reporter, only to see that she folded the bracket of the lamp, round The part of the plate was evenly and back-to-back with the cover, and it looked like a boat that could eat very deep water.
"You see, the hull's head and tail also made a special hole, you can wear a rope to hang up, the boat can hold fuel in the belly." Liu Yan explained that the small boat light, strong sense of style, practicality is not Under the words.
Inheriting the millennium change
The ancient lamp is a thousand years, engraving the wisdom of the Chinese nation. From the beginning of the lamp, there have been many famous stories and allusions in history. For example, Zhuge Liang of the Three Kingdoms Period invented the Kongming Lantern, which was often used as a military at first, and then used to pray for blessings. In the Song Dynasty, there was a story of "only the state officials set fire to the people to light up."
From the Three Kingdoms and the Jin Dynasty to the Northern and Southern Dynasties, to the Song and Yuan Dynasties of the Sui, Tang, and Five Dynasties, lamps were also more commonly found in the lives of ordinary people. During this period, the public not only produced a large number of practically-oriented lamps, but also rapidly developed a lantern with both functions of lighting and decoration. Since then, ancient Chinese lamps have developed in parallel along the two main lines of practical lamps and palace lamps. Ceramic production in the Song Dynasty entered a period of prosperity, and the number of practical ceramic lamps increased dramatically. The “fuel-saving lamps”, which are well-known both at home and abroad, were particularly prominent in the Song Dynasty.
The types of lamps in the Ming and Qing Dynasties were more abundant than those in the Tang and Song Dynasties. The palace lanterns with dual functions of viewing and lighting reached their peak during this period. Various ceramic lamps, metal lamps, glass lamps, wooden candlesticks, etc., are not only beautiful in shape, but also rich in decoration, which is a new peak in the history of ancient Chinese lamps.
At the end of the Qing Dynasty, with the input of “foreign oil”, kerosene lamps gradually replaced the original vegetable oil lamps. At the same time, glass has become an indispensable component material in the manufacture of lamps. Portable folding glass military lights, windproof wind lamps, lanterns evolved from ancient lanterns, capable of lifting, windproof and fireproof, and signal lights for transmitting information have emerged.
Human creation of lamps illuminates the historical process, and the history of leaving lights has become the "eye" of our insight into ancient society today. When ancient lamps gradually evolved from people's daily practical objects into display objects, we can still truly touch the cultural atmosphere of the lamps in each period from the streamer of its years.